The non-bitter fruits are eaten raw or pickled. The bitter fruits are used as a (drastic) purgative.
There is no information on the nutritive value of the fruits, but probably it is comparable to cucumber.
The fruits of Cucumis zeyheri contain cucurbitacins B and D. Cucurbitacins, which are known from many Cucurbitaceae and various other plant species, exhibit cytotoxicity (including antitumour activity), anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.
This species can be confused with Cucumis prophetarum which is found in East Africa and Asia.
Identified by Johan Baard http://www.ispot.org.za/node/158522