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Insects and related species: Antlions - Ants - Bees - Beetles - Bugs - Butterflies, Moths and Caterpillars - Centipedes and Millipedes - Cockroaches - Crickets - Dragonflies and Damselflies - Grasshoppers and Katydids - Mantis - Stick Insects - Ticks and Mites - Wasps - Woodlice
Plants, Trees, Flowers: (Note: Unless plants fall into a specific species such as Cacti, they have been classified by their flower colour to make them easier to find) Bonsai - Cacti, Succulents, Aloes, Euplorbia - Ferns and Cycads - Flowers - Fungi, Lichen and Moss - Grass - Trees
Animals, Birds, Reptiles etc.: Animals, Birds, Fish and Crabs - Frogs - Lizards - Scorpions - Snails and Slugs - Snakes - Spiders - Tortoise, Turtles and Terrapins - Whipscorpions
Other photography: Aeroplanes - Cars and Bikes - Travel - Sunrise - Water drops/falls - Sudwala and Sterkfontein Caves etc.

Tuesday, June 11, 2013

Powderpuff Tree (Barringtonia racemosa)

Family Lecythidaceae
 Ecology

Barringtonia racemosa can tolerate salt water and therefore thrives under coastal and estaurine conditions. It also grows well under dry conditions where frost does not occur. The chief dispersal agent for the buoyant seeds is the tide. Although there are no records of animals eating the fruit, the presence of the trees up to 1 000 m above sea level points to an as yet unknown animal as a dispersal agent. It flowers twice a year: in spring and again from January to April. The strong scent produced by the flowers at night attract moths and nectar-feeding bats. After the flowers (petals and stamens) are shed, the inflorescences are often crowded with ants that are attracted to the nectar. It is the larval food plant for the butterfly Coeliades keithloa.

 Description

Barringtonia racemosa has a straight, unbranched stem that leads to a rounded crown and is usually 4-8 m tall, but occasionally reaches 15 m. The bark is greyish brown to pink with white blotches and raised dots and lines. The branches are marked with leaf scars.

 The flowers are produced on hanging racemes up to 1 m long. The buds are pinkish red and split open to bring forth masses of delicate stamens in white sprays up to 35 mm wide, which are often tinged with pink. The flowers give off a pungent, putrid yet faintly sweet odour in the morning. The fruit are quadrangular, 65 x 40 mm. Each fruit contains a single seed surrounded by spongy, fibrous flesh that provides the buoyancy that allows the fruit to be carried off with the tide.
 Distribution and habitat

Barringtonia racemosa is mainly a coastal species that thrives under very humid, moist conditions. It is common along tropical and subtropical coasts in the Indian Ocean, starting at the east coast of South Africa. It is also common in Mozambique, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, southern China, northern Australia, the Ryukyu Islands of Japan and a number of Polynesian islands. It does grow well under dry conditions but it cannot tolerate even mild frost.

 Uses and cultural aspects

The seeds, bark, wood and roots contain the poison saponin and is used to stun fish. The bark, which also has a high tannin content, is frequently used in powdered form for this purpose. Extracts from the plant are effective insectides and are also used medicinally in the East; in South Africa the Zulus use the fruit to treat malaria. In Bengal the seeds are used to poison people and coconut is said to be the antidote. The young leaves are edible and the bark is often used for cordage.