For the identification of insects and other fauna and flora of South Africa: please click on the following links:
Insects and related species: Antlions - Ants - Bees - Beetles - Bugs - Butterflies, Moths and Caterpillars - Centipedes and Millipedes - Cockroaches - Crickets - Dragonflies and Damselflies - Grasshoppers and Katydids - Mantis - Stick Insects - Ticks and Mites - Wasps - Woodlice
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Animals, Birds, Reptiles etc.: Animals, Birds, Fish and Crabs - Frogs - Lizards - Scorpions - Snails and Slugs - Snakes - Spiders - Tortoise, Turtles and Terrapins - Whipscorpions
Other photography: Aeroplanes - Cars and Bikes - Travel - Sunrise - Water drops/falls - Sudwala and Sterkfontein Caves etc.

Wednesday, June 25, 2014

Sjambok Pod (Cassia abbreviate)

Family Caesalpiniodeae  
Description
Cassia abbreviata subsp. beareana is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree up to 7 m high. Its slender to medium-broad trunk is covered in bark that ranges from dark brown to grey and black. In old trees the bark is often deeply furrowed.


The leaves, which appear lightly drooping, are compound (one leaf made up of smaller leaflets), bright green when young and fade to a darker green when older.

The flowers, which can be seen from August to October, are deep yellow and appear clustered at the ends of the branches. They are sweetly scented. The pods appear soon after the flowers, are up to 80 mm long and cylindrical in shape. They ripen from a light green to a dark brown. The pods may take up to a year to ripen.
Derivation of name and historical aspects
The genus name Cassia is derived from the Greek word. The species name abbreviata means shortened, and the subspecies beareana was named after Dr O'Sullivan Beare from the London Pharmaceutical Society who apparently found that a root extract from this plant could be used to cure blackwater fever. There are about 30 Cassia species worldwide, but this is the only one found naturally in South Africa, although others are cultivated as garden plants.

Ecology
This tree is popular with both animals and humans. Various birds from our indigenous parrot species to the Go-away Bird eat the fruit pulp and seeds. Animals such as nyala, giraffe and kudu browse the leaves. Elephants are also said to eat the leaves and the young branches of the tree.


Uses and cultural aspects
Various parts of the tree are used in traditional medicine for treating everything from blackwater fever, headache, toothache and stomachache to using it as a natural abortion agent.


An infusion is made from the root and drunk as an aphrodisiac. The seed is known to be used as a tonic. The root is used for the treatment of toothache. And for the treatment of headaches, the smoke from smouldering twigs can be inhaled to bring relief.
In addition the tree is also seen as a very useful ornamental subject in gardens.